Provision Of Access For Persons With Disabilities In Selected Sports Stadiums In Ghana

  • Professor Anthony Kwame Danso Department of Construction technology and Management Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Ghana
  • Professor Emmanuel Adinyira Faculty of Built Environment, College of Art and Built Environment, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi-Ghana and CIDB Centre of Excellence, University of Johannesburg, South Africa
  • Professor Joshua Ayarkwa Department of Construction technology and Management Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Ghana
  • Eric Tudzi Department of Land Economy Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Ghana
  • Elvis Konadu Adjei Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology
Keywords: Accessibility, Persons with Disabilities, Stadiums, Universal design, Act 715

Abstract

Prior to the enactment of the Persons with Disability Act 715 in 2006, Ghana had four stadiums; the Kumasi and Accra Sports Stadiums were built in the nineteen fifties and sixties but refurbished around 2006 when the Sekondi-Takoradi and Tamale Sports Stadiums were built. The main aim of this study is to determine the accessibility of these four stadiums to spectators who are Persons with Disabilities (PWDs). Facilities at these stadiums were audited to determine their compliance with accessibility legislation, standards, guides, codes etc. The results showed that although the latter-built stadiums were slightly more accessible to PWDs, all four stadiums were generally not very accessible. This study provides vital data to policy makers for the future design, construction and management of stadiums in Ghana.

Author Biographies

Professor Anthony Kwame Danso, Department of Construction technology and Management Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Ghana

Department of Construction Technology and Management

Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Ghana

Associate Professor

Professor Emmanuel Adinyira, Faculty of Built Environment, College of Art and Built Environment, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi-Ghana and CIDB Centre of Excellence, University of Johannesburg, South Africa

Faculty of Built Environment, College of Art and Built Environment, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi-Ghana and CIDB Centre of Excellence, University of Johannesburg, South Africa

Associate Professor

Professor Joshua Ayarkwa, Department of Construction technology and Management Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Ghana

Department of Construction technology and Management

Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Ghana

Professor

Eric Tudzi, Department of Land Economy Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Ghana

Department of Land Economy Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Ghana

Dr.

Elvis Konadu Adjei, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology

Department of Construction Technology and Management

Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Ghana

References

Abdul Rahim, A. (2008). What is Access Audit and Access Audit for Existing Buildings in Meeting Universal Designs. In Workshop on Access Audit for “Kajian Audit Akses Untuk Ruang Awam bagi Orang Kurang Upaya di Malaysia” for Ministry of Women, family and Community Development, 7th to 8th June.
Abells, D., Burbidge, J., & Minnes, P. (2008). Involvement of adolescents with intellectual disabilities in social and recreational activities. Journal on Developmental Disabilities, 14(2), 88.
Accessible Stadia: A good practice guide to the design of facilities to meet the needs of disabled spectators and other users. Football Stadia Improvement Fund and the Football Licensing Authority (2003). Sports Grounds and Stadia Guide No.1.
Ashigbi, E. K. Y., Torgbenu, E. L., Danso, A. K., & Tudzi, E. P. (2017). Mobility challenges of persons with disabilities at a University in Ghana. Journal of Disability Studies, 3(1), 8-14.
Authority, S. G. S., & Britain, G. (2018). Guide to safety at sports grounds. Sports Grounds Safety Authority.
Bernama (2009). From Normal to Disabled, Journey Full of Trials and Tribulations. Retrieved October 12, 2011 from http://www.bernama.com/bernama/v5/newsfeatures.php?id=458728
British Standards Institution 2001, BS 8300:2001 Design of Buildings and their Approaches to meet the needs of Disabled People – Code of Practice, BSI Standards Limited, London.
Building and Construction Materials – Accessibility Standard for the built Environment (2016) GS 1119:2016
Chiluba, B. C. (2019). Barriers of Persons with Physical Disability over Accessibility and Mobility to Public Buildings in Zambia. Indonesian Journal of Disability Studies, 6(1), 53-63.
Code of Federal Regulations Method. (2020). Definitions. https://doi.org/10.32388/dnvji8
Danso, A. K., & EP, T. (2015, March). Consultants and users: Who is right on the accessibility of Accra road interchanges. In Proceedings of 4th International Conference on Infrastructure Development in Africa (ICIDA) Conference, Kumasi (pp. 25-26).
Danso, A. K., Atuahene, B. T., & Agyekum, K. (2017, April). Assessing the accessibility of built infrastructure facilities for persons with disabilities: A case of the Sofoline Interchange. In ICIDA 2017-6th International Conference on Infrastructure Development in Africa (pp. 12-14).
Darcy, S. and Harris, R. (2003). Inclusive and Accessible Special Event Planning: An Australian Perspective. Event Management, 8: 39-47.
Darcy, S., & Dowse, L. (2013). In search of a level playing field–the constraints and benefits of sport participation for people with intellectual disability. Disability & Society, 28(3), 393-407.
de Velasco Machado, L., & de Oliveira, U. R. (2021). Analysis of failures in the accessibility of university buildings. Journal of Building Engineering, 33, 101654.
Department for Transport (2022) About us. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/organisations/department-for-transport/about (Accessed: 13 December, 2022).
Department of Economic and Social Affairs. (2014). Good Practice of Accessible Urban Development. United Nations, 14, 1. http://www.un.org/disabilities%0Ahttps://sdgs.un.org/topics/forests%0Ahttps://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/publications/files/wup2014-highlights.Pdf
Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (UK) c 50
Disability Info SA 2005, General - Facilities for the Disabled - Guidelines, Disability Info SA, Cape Town.
Disability Rights Commission. (2002). Disability Discrimination Act 1995: code of practice: rights of access: goods, facilities, services and premises. The Stationery Office..
Equality and Human Rights Commission (EHRC) (2017), “Being disabled in Britain. A journey less equal”, EHRC, London, available at: https://www.equalityhumanrights.com/sites/default/files/ being-disabled-in-britain.pdf
Federal Republic of Nigeria 2006, National Building Code of Nigeria, Federal Ministry of Housing and Urban Development, Abuja.
Football Stadia Improvement Fund. (2003). Accessible Stadia. August, 105. http://www.safetyatsportsgrounds.org.uk/sites/default/files/publications/accessible-stadia.pdf
Games, P. (2018). A Handbook to Accessibility Support. September.
Games, T. T. O. C. of the O. and P. (2020). Tokyo 2020 Accessibility Guidelines 24. March 2017.
Ghana Building Code (2018). Building and Construction, Ghana Standard Authority, GhBC GSI 1207: 2018
Ghana Government. The Persons with Disability Act, 2006 (Act 715) of the Republic of Ghana. Accra (GH); 2006
Gupta, S., Sharma, V., & Verma, S. (2007). A Guidebook on Creating Sporting & Recreational Activities for Persons with Disabilities. Office of the Chief Commissioner for Persons with Disabilities. http://ccdisabilities.nic.in/content/en/docs/SportingAndRecreation.pdf
Harada, C.M., and G.N. Siperstein. ‘The Sport Experience of Athletes with Intellectual Disabilities: A National Survey of Special Olympics Athletes and Their Families’. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly 26 (2009): 68–85.
Hassan, D., Dowling, S., McConkey, R., & Menke, S. (2012). The inclusion of people with intellectual disabilities in team sports: Lessons from the Youth Unified Sports programme of Special Olympics. Sport in Society, 15(9), 1275-1290.
Improving Facilities for Disabled Supporters. A report by the Football Task Force submitted to the Minister of Sport, July 1998
Iwasaki, Y., & Mactavish, J. B. (2005). Ubiquitous yet unique: Perspectives of people with disabilities on stress. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 48(4), 194-208.
Jamaludin, M., & Kadir, S. A. (2012). Accessibility in Buildings of Tourist Attraction: A case studies comparison. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 35, 97-104.
Jamaludin, M., Mohd Ali, H., & Mohammad, E. (2010, May). Accessibility for Person with Disability in Tourism. In The 5th World Conference for Graduate Research in Tourism, Hospitality and Leisure (Vol. 25).
Kitchin, P. J., Paramio-Salcines, J. L., Darcy, S., & Walters, G. (2022). Exploring the accessibility of sport stadia for people with disability: Towards the development of a Stadium Accessibility Scale (SAS). Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, 12(1), 93-116.
Larkin, H., Hitch, D., Watchorn, V., & Ang, S. (2015). Working with policy and regulatory factors to implement universal design in the built environment: The Australian experience. International journal of environmental research and public health, 12(7), 8157-8171.
M. Bittencourt, V. Pereira, W. Júnior, The usability of architectural spaces: Objective and subjective qualities of built environment as multidisciplinary construction, Proced. Manufacturing 3 (2015) 6429–6436, https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.promfg.2015.07.919.
Meyer, J. P., Stanley, D. J., Herscovitch, L., & Topolnytsky, L. (2002). Affective, continuance, and normative commitment to the organization: A meta-analysis of antecedents, correlates, and consequences. Journal of vocational behavior, 61(1), 20-52.
National Association of Disabled Supporters (NADS) 2003, Access Audit Checklist, NADS, London.
O'Hara, B. (2004). Twice penalized: Employment discrimination against women with disabilities. Journal of Disability Policy Studies, 15(1), 27-34.
Paramio Salcines, J. L., Grady, J., & Downs, P. (2014). Growing the football game: The increasing economic and social relevance of older fans and those with disabilities in the European football industry. Soccer & Society, 15(6), 864-882.
Paramio-Salcines, L., & Llopis-Goig, R. (2018). Structures and policies at the main European football leagues: Evolution and recent changes. In Routledge Handbook of Football Business and Management (pp. 33-43). Routledge.
Patel, H. C. (2004). Design Manual for a Barrier- Free. 102.
Perkins, S 1997, The Football Trust national guide to facilities for disabled football supporters, The Football Trust (Football Foundation), London.
Premier League. (2019). Season 2019/20. https://resources.premierleague.com/
Putnam, M., Geenen, S., Powers, L., & Saxton, M. (2003). Health and wellness: People with disabilities discuss barriers and facilitators to well being. Journal of rehabilitation, 69(1), 37.
Rivano-Fischer, D. (2004). Wheelchair accessibility of public buildings in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates (UAE). Disability and Rehabilitation, 26(19), 1150-1157.
Solidere (2004). Accessibility for the disabled, a design manual for a barrier free environment. Accessed from: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/enable/designm/ on 10 February 2023.
Sport England. (2010). Accessible Sports Facilities Updated 2010 guidance. ReVision.
Sports Grounds Safety Authority (2003) Accessible Stadia. London: Sports Grounds Safety Authority.
Sports, A., & Management, S. (2016). Accessible Sports Stadia Management Guidelines 2016 Edition Guide 4. www.dsni.co.uk
Sports, A., & Management, S. (2016). Accessible Sports Stadia Management Guidelines 2016 Edition Guide 4. www.dsni.co.uk
The Building Regulations 2004 Edition Access to and use of Buildings Approved Document M (UK) SI 2004/1466
Topping, B., & Fleet, M. (2007). Facility Accessibility Design Standards. October, 1–102.
Tudzi, E. P., Bugri, J. T., & Danso, A. K. (2017). Human rights of students with disabilities in Ghana: Accessibility of the university built environment. Nordic Journal of Human Rights, 35(3), 275-294.
UEFA/CAFE. (2011). Access for All: UEFA and CAFE Good Practice Guide to Creating an Accessible Stadium and Matchday Experience. UEFA, Nyon, Switzerland.
UNITED NATIONS, Department of Economic and Social Affairs Division for Social Policy and Development (2013). Accessibility and Development, Mainstreaming disability in the post-2015 development agenda
WHO (2015). Regional Office for Africa, “Disabilities”
WHO development Regional Office for Africa (2015). “Disability and Rehabilitation”.
Wicaksana, A. (2016). 済無No Title No Title No Title. Https://Medium.Com/, 262–263. https://medium.com/@arifwicaksanaa/pengertian-use-case-a7e576e1b6bf
Williams, J 1998, Leaving the trackside? facilities for disabled fans at British stadia, post-Hillsborough, Football Trust (Football Foundation), London.
Wilm, S., & Noe, C. (2008). Promoting Access to the Built Environment. https://www.cbm.org/article/downloads/54741/CBM_Accessibility_Manual.pdf
Wikipedia. (2022, March 25). Accra Sports Stadium disaster. In Wikipedia. Retrieved April 4, 2023, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Accra_Sports_Stadium_disaster
World Health Organisation (WHO), World Bank (WB). (2011). World Disability Report.
World Health Organization (2001). ICIDH-2 International Classification of Functioning and Disability, Geneva
Yarfi, C., Ashigbi, E.K.Y., Nakua, E. Wheelchair accessibility to public buildings in the Kumasi metropolis, Ghana, Afr. J. Disab. 6 (2017) 1–8, https://doi.org/10.4102/ ajod.v6i0.341.
Yau, Y. and Lau, W. K. (2016). "Property management, disability awareness and inclusive built environment Property Management. 34(5): 434-447
Yazigi, S., Resende, A. E., & Yazigi, R. (2015). Accessibility in Soccer Stadiums: Infrastructure and Organization in Support of People with Reduced Mobility – A Use Analysis. Procedia Manufacturing, 3(Ahfe), 5557–5561. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.promfg.2015.07.731
Zahari, N. F., Che-Ani, A. I., Abdul Rashid, R. B., Mohd Tahir, M. A., & Amat, S. (2020). Factors contribute in development of the assessment framework for wheelchair accessibility in National Heritage Buildings in Malaysia. International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, 38(2), 311-328.
Published
2023-05-12
How to Cite
Danso, A. K., Adinyira, E., Ayarkwa, J., Tudzi, E., & Adjei, E. K. (2023). Provision Of Access For Persons With Disabilities In Selected Sports Stadiums In Ghana. Asian Journal of Management, Entrepreneurship and Social Science, 3(03), 86-116. Retrieved from https://ajmesc.com/index.php/ajmesc/article/view/356